Annotated bibliography

1.     Mozaffarian D, Jacobson MF, Greenstein JS. Food reformulations to reduce trans fatty acids. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(21):2037-9.

Among 83 reformulated food products (58 supermarket foods and 25 restaurant foods), trans-fat content was reduced to less than 0.5g per serving in 95% of supermarket products and 80% of restaurant products analyzed. Reductions in trans-fat nearly always exceeded any increase in saturated fat; following reformulation, overall content of both fats combined was reduced in 90% (52 of 58) supermarket products and 96% (24 of 25) restaurant products.

2.     Brandt EJ, Myerson R, Perraillon MC, Polonsky TS. Hospital admissions for myocardial infarction and stroke before and after the trans-fatty acid restrictions in New York. JAMA Cardiol. 2017;2(6):627-34.

In New York, from 2002-2013, populations living in counties with trans-fatty acid restrictions experienced 6.2% fewer hospital admissions for myocardial infarction and stroke, beyond temporal trends, than populations in counties without trans-fatty acid restrictions.

3.     Restrepo BJ, Rieger M. Denmark’s policy on artificial trans fat and cardiovascular disease. Am J Prev Med. 2016;50(1):69-76.

In January 2004, Denmark became the first country in the world to regulate the content of artificial trans-fat in certain ingredients in food products, which nearly eliminated artificial trans-fat from the Danish food supply. Over the 2004–2012 period, CVD mortality fell by 14.2 deaths per 100,000 people per year.

4.     He FJ, Pombo-Rodrigues S, Macgregor GA. Salt reduction in England from 2003 to 2011: its relationship to blood pressure, stroke and ischaemic heart disease mortality. BMJ Open. 2014;4(4):e004549.

In England, implementation of voluntary sodium reduction targets for industry was associated with a 15% reduction in sodium intake and a 40% reduction in each heart disease and stroke mortality rates in less than 10 years.

5.     Mills KT, Bundy JD, Kelly TN, et al. Global disparities of hypertension prevalence and control: a systematic analysis of population-based studies from 90 countries. Circulation. 2016;134(6):441-50.

Globally, an estimated 1.39 billion people had hypertension in 2010, with 75% of those living in low- and middle-income countries (1.04 billion). Only 14% of people with hypertension worldwide had their blood pressure controlled in 2010; the proportion was lower in low- and middle-income countries (7.7%) than in higher-income countries (28.4%).

 6.     Padwal RS, Bienek A, McAlister FA, Campbell NR, Outcomes Research Task Force of the Canadian Hypertension Education Program. Epidemiology of hypertension in Canada: an update. Can J Cardiol. 2016;32(5):687-94.

In 2012-2013, 22.6% of Canadian adults had hypertension and 68.1% of those with hypertension had their blood pressure controlled. Total antihypertensive drug prescriptions have increased steadily since 2007.


7.     Luepker RV, Steffen LM, Jacobs, Jr DR, Zhou X, Blackburn H. Trends in blood pressure and hypertension detection, treatment, and control 1980 to 2009: the Minnesota Heart Survey. Circulation. 2012;126(15):1852-7.

In Minneapolis-St. Paul, 66% of men and 72% of women with hypertension had their blood pressure controlled in 2007-2009. Hypertension control was ~30% as recently as the mid-1990s. Health systems have prioritized high blood pressure as an important goal for cardiovascular disease prevention, achieving high levels of blood pressure control and corresponding declines in stroke deaths.

 8.     Frieden TR, Tappero JW, Dowell SF, Hien NT, Guillaume FD, Aceng JR. Safer countries through global health security. Lancet. 2014;383(9919):764-6.

Countries around the world face a perfect storm of converging threats increase the risk from infectious disease epidemics: new pathogens emerge each year, some existing pathogens are becoming resistant to available antibiotics, and there is the potential threat of intentional release of biological agents. The accelerated pace of globalization amplifies these risks. There are three key elements of health security: prevention wherever possible, early detection, and timely and effective response. Rapid progress in health security is feasible with high-level political motivation, adequate investment, and technical expertise. 

9.     Tappero JW, Thomas MJ, Kenyon TA, Frieden TR. Global health security agenda: building resilient public health systems to stop infectious disease threats. Lancet. 2015;385:1889-91.

The moment for global public health systems development is now. The Ebola epidemic showed how connected we are as a global community; we are only as safe as the most fragile states. Ebola will not be the last infectious disease threat we face. The Global Health Security Agenda is the opportunity to make rapid progress strengthening country and intercountry capacities to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats, both naturally occurring and intentionally released. One crucial activity is independent evaluation of progress at the country level, which must be objective, transparent, simple, and meaningful, and findings used to mobilize human and financial resources. Independent evaluation will be crucial to accelerate progress where it is needed most, and will facilitate global and country accountability for our shared health security fate.

10.  Advancing the Global Health Security Agenda: progress and early impact from U.S. investment. Available at: Accessed June 22, 2017.

This report describes the early impact of the Global Health Security Agenda. After 1 year of implementation, partner countries have improved their capabilities to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats.

11.  Phu TD, Long VN, Hien NT, et al. Strengthening global health security capacity–Vietnam demonstration project, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(4):77-80.

During March–September 2013, CDC collaborated with the Vietnamese Ministry of Health on a project to demonstrate that enhancements could be made in a short period to the capacity for surveillance and early detection of and response to disease outbreaks in Vietnam. Achievements included enhanced laboratory testing capability for several priority pathogens, established emergency operations functions, and demonstration of the need and capability for information systems to enhance public health emergency reporting.

12.  Borchert JN, Tappero JW, Downing R, et al. Rapidly Building Global Health Security Capacity — Uganda Demonstration Project, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(4):73-6.

This report describes rapid global health security enhancements in Uganda targeting three areas: laboratory systems, information systems, and coordination of information through emergency operations centers. These enhancements resulted in substantial improvements in the ability of Uganda's public health system to detect and respond to health threats in 6 months.